At the eastern end of the north facing front of the mastaba (about 14 metres long and 4 metres in height) is a pillared portico which gives entry to the interior. The names and titles of the tomb owners are symmetrically inscribed on the architrave and the outwards facing sides of the two pillars, Niankhkhnum on the right and Khnumhotep on the left, the titles being the same, only the names differ.
The architrave contains two horizontal inscriptions, both starting from the middle and reading either left or right. The right-hand side reads :
"Supervisor of the manicurists of the palace, the King's administrator, Niankhkhnum".
The right-hand pillar reads :
"Confidant of the king working as a manicurist, overseer of the manicurists of the royal palace, the King's administrator, Niankhkhnum" ().
The quality, even after several thousand years, is still remarkable, see , taken from the left-hand pillar.
THE FIRST VESTIBULE
With a height of approximately four metres and being only 1.80m in depth and 3.45m in width, this area provides very little manoeuvrability and must have posed several problems during its decoration. This would also apply to the first chamber which isn't much larger but still has the same height.
East and west walls
Having passed through the two pillars, into this vestibule, the side walls show a matching pair of scenes from the funeral ceremonies of the two brothers, Niankhkhnum on the west (right) wall () and Khnumhotep on the east wall. The east wall is almost complete, but the west wall has several missing blocks at the top right-hand side. The top register is the most affected. The east wall is almost devoid of its original colour.
The walls are divided into five registers of uneven height, showing the funerary barque transporting a cult statue of the appropriate deceased.
The sequence starts in the bottom register, with the shrine containing a statue of the deceased being transported in a reed boat towed by two others. An unusual feature is the fact that it is also towed from the bank by a group of 9 men on the east wall and 13 men on the west wall, displayed on an upper sub-register (west wall ).
The next register again shows a funerary boat taking the statue shrine on the "journey to Sais" (east wall ). At either end of the register are structures possibly representing Sais (also ).
The narrow middle register shows a scene of animal butchery, involving, on the east wall three oxen and an antelope, whilst on the west wall there are only three oxen.
The penultimate register shows the shrine being dragged during its final stage by both a team of nine priests and two cattle. A female mourner walks in front of the procession, one also brings up the rear, behind the shrine. In a sub-register above the men and cattle are displayed several offerings of breads, fruits and meats. In yet another sub-register above the offerings are several 'doors of appearance' for the appropriate deceased. The centre two are the most elaborate, but these are missing from the west wall on one of the missing blocks ().
The register at the very top of the wall contains the presentation of offerings before the deceased, who stands in the opened statue shrine. On the west wall the uppermost left block, at the end of the image, is lost today so that the representation of the deceased remains fragmentary.
On both walls, the action progresses towards the south wall.
Before the modern security gates were added, this wall was readily visible from outside the tomb. The wall is divided into two major areas, the scenes above the passageway to the interior and two matching scenes either side of the passage.
The offering tables.
Above the entrance to the passage is a double scene of the two deceased seated in front of their own offering table, separated by three sub-registers. Its decoration is of particular importance because it constitutes a sort of synthesis of the whole scene. Each of the two brothers are seated at opposite ends of the wall, Niankhkhnum on the right and Khnumhotep on the left, facing each other. The two top sub-registers are filled with offerings of food and drink. The lowest has two groups of servants or butchers carving up the sacrificial animals and presenting the joints to the respective deceased.
The offering formula.
Below this scene are three inscribed rows of text; the top two read from left to right. The bottom row is symmetrically inscribed starting from the centre, containing the name and titles of Niankhkhnum on the right and Khnumhotep on the left. At either end is a standing figure of the deceased.
The text above was meant to be recited regularly by the funerary priest, by a member of the family or even by a passer-by; it supplies a list of feast days when the funerary cult should be performed. According to the conventional ritual, it is the reigning pharaoh who is supposed to intercede with the god (most frequently Osiris or Anubis), to grant to the deceased everything that a "happy soul" could desire in the other world; the royal authority is the obligatory intermediary between the individual and the deity.
The text reads :
"An offering which the king gives to Anubis, who is in his mummy wrappings, who presides over the necropolis, that he may grant a tomb in the western necropolis, a very good old age, as two lords honoured by the great god (Osiris). An invocatory offering of bread, beer, meat and fowl; at the Festival of Thoth - the Wag-Festival - at the beginning of the year, the Sokar Festival, the Great Festival, the Flame Festival, the Festival of Preparing the Flame, the Festival of the Procession of Min, the Festival of the Month of Sadj, the Festival of the Month, the Festival of the Half-month and on all the festivals and on every day of every season of the year.
For the overseer of the manicurists of the palace, the confidant of the king and privy councillor, honoured by the great god, Khnumhotep; and for the overseer of the manicurists of the palace, the confidant of the king and privy councillor, honoured by the great god, Niankhkhnum"
The scene of hunting and fishing in the marshes.
Either side of the passage to the interior is a traditional motif found in Egyptian tombs. It is the first scene of hunting and fishing in the marshes in the chapel of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep and is one of the best preserved from Dynasty V. As before, Khnumhotep is on the left and Niankhkhnum is on the right, each portrayed on an heroic scale, on a small papyrus boat. Khnumhotep is spearing two fish (tilapia nilotica, L.) with his double harpoon, whilst Niankhkhnum brings down flying birds with his throwing stick. Between them, either side of the passageway, is depicted the full richness and artistry of the marshes in which are shown a great many fish and birds, of various species.
Accompanying Khnumhotep in the small boat are his wife Khenut, his son Ptahshepses and his daughter Rewedjkawes. On the right-hand side, Niankhkhnum is accompanied by his wife Khentikawes, his son Hem-re and his daughter Hemet-re.
PASSAGE TO THE FIRST CHAMBER
Here again, the right hand (west) wall is devoted to Niankhkhnum () and the left (east) wall to Khnumhotep (). Both walls contain five registers, the uppermost being shortened due to intrusion of the broad red rounded beam crossing above the actual doorway. Although the general content of both walls is the same, they do vary from each other. On both walls, the texts for each scene spells out the action, for example:
"Escorting the statues in a perfect way in peace, in peace to the great god".
On the west wall, the top register contains images of offerings. Registers two, three and four show the transportation of Niankhkhnum's statues on sledges, pulled by a team of men. The uppermost of these three contains two seated statues (), the next two have a single standing statue. On the lowest register eight men tussle with a sacrificial bull ().
On the east wall, the top register again contains images of offerings. Registers two and three show the transportation of the statues of Khnumhotep on sledges, again pulled by a team of men. This time, the uppermost only has a single standing statue and the register below has two, both contained within a structure painted with vertical black stripes. Register four is different on this wall and shows the transportation of boxes (), the accompanying texts states :
"Pulling the transportation boxes with the invocatory offerings (the 'prt-xrw')
for the Thoth-festival.". On the lowest register only four men tussle with a sacrificial bull, which is less than the number involved on the west wall, and shows the greater emphasis given to Niankhkhnum.
Over the entrance to the first chamber is a rounded red painted beam, representing a rolled up mat. This contains the inscribed names and titles of the two deceased, produced in sunken hieroglyphs in two horizontal lines which start from the right-hand side.
At the top :
"Overseer of the manicurists of the palace, the confidant of the king, acquaintance of the King, Niankhkhnum.
"Overseer of the manicurists of the palace, the confidant of the king, acquaintance of the King, Khnumhotep."
THE ENTRANCE OF THE FIRST CHAMBER
The passage broadens before entering the first chamber (height: 3m, width: 1.2m) in order to accept a door, providing two walls for decoration. However, only the west (right) wall contains any images, the east wall being the one on to which the door opens inwards.
The west wall is covered with a coherent group of scenes of baking and brewing, spread over six registers, all of the same height, to be read from the top to the bottom. At the right-hand side of the bottom register is the bolt hole for closure of the door.
The top register shows the rarely portrayed scene at the granary, in which the barley required for the scenes below is carefully measured out, precisely 58 hequat-measures. A prime example of Egyptian bureaucracy, the quantity of cereal removed is announced orally, noted by a scribe and then officially endorsed by the overseer of the warehouse.
Registers two to four are devoted to the making of two types of bread, one for consumption and one for brewing beer.
On the right of register two, the barley is crushed by two men using long pestles, after which the corn is separated from the chaff. This is then ground and sieved by the women of the left-hand side. The woman on the right, who is sieving the flour, jokingly chides her companion, who is grinding it :
"Hurry up now, white one, so that I can sieve the flour!". She then replies :
"I'm doing so, as you wish", whilst she is held from behind by her son ().
In register three a young woman is warming up the individual cone shaped moulds over a fire, ready for the dough and baking of the bread; at the same time she suckles a baby (). In front of her, to the right, men carry out the baking. The moulds are checked and the dough is inserted into them. A small sub-register, top right, shows the risen bread which is checked and dusted. This must be the bread also used for the beer making in register five, because in order to rise it must have contained a yeast, bread for consumption was normally unleavened (no yeast), as produced in register four.
Register four shows the baking of the consumable bread. On the left the dough is mixed in a large vessel, to then be rolled out as shown in the middle of the scene. Finally the bread is baked in oblong oval forms on the fire.
The fifth register portrays in a rather strange way of brewing beer, based on the fermentation of barley bread and date liquor. On the left a man crushes the dates required for the brew by treading them in a large vat. The actual mixing for fermentation is carried out at the right of the register. In the middle, the fermented beer is poured into large vessels.
In the lowermost register of the wall, which shortened by the bolt hole, is represented the taking stock of the baked bread and the brewed beer. The scribe on the right keeping tally as others bring in the finished products. Again the bureaucracy seen in the top register reappears.
THE FIRST CHAMBER
This fully decorated chamber, accessed through the entrance doorway in its north wall, has two further passage/doorways. The passage at the east end of the south wall leads to and undecorated chamber the function of which was possibly that of a store-room. A doorway is located in the west wall (south end) leading to a passageway to an internal courtyard. The chamber is approximately 1.8m north-south and 3.6m east-west, with a height of just under 4 metres.
With the exception of the metre high dado at the bottom, the walls are decorated to their full height, with the top being delimited by a ladder frieze (often called an Egyptian frieze) of coloured rectangles separated and edged with dark lines. Originally this coloured band also bordered the ends of the walls, these vertical bands have almost completely vanished, though sections of the top borders still exist. Above the top band is a geometrical frieze of the isosceles triangles and vertical lines, possibly a stylised representation of lotus blossoms. Originally all of the register scenes were painted on a blue-grey background, which has now nearly all disappeared but is still retained on a few of the stone blocks.
The entrance doorway divides this wall of the first chamber into three sets of registers. The first runs along the top of the wall, above the height of the entrance from the pillared portico. The others are located either side of this entrance, The right (east) side being approximately twice the width of the left side.
The upper register set again shows the two brothers at its extremities, each accompanied by his eldest son; on the left (west) Niankhkhnum (see top of ) and on the right (east) Khnumhotep. The two of them oversee the activities which take place in the area between them. This area is divided into four registers.
The uppermost register contains images from the life of the goatherd (on the right) as well as images of the felling of the trees (on the left). The second register shows the wood being carried to the area of boat construction, which is shown in detail from the centre of the register to the right-hand side, with the fabrication and fitting together of the different sections by carpenters. The two lower registers contain horticulture scenes; with, on the third register, the grape harvest (right) and the fig harvest (left). These scenes are almost totally separated by the heightened central portion of the image of the fourth register, which shows the harvest of lotus blossoms in a papyrus thicket, where the disturbed birds are in flight (). Right and left from this image are portrayed the cultivation of vegetables and lilies in the garden.
The lower west (left) register set is divided into three very unequal registers. The upper one shows representations of the catching of songbirds (, ), in the middle narrower register the birds are placed in boxes. The lowest register shows a sailing vessel on its way to the "beautiful west". The scenes of the catching of songbirds could be connected indirectly with the horticulture scenes of the upper register set (bottom register, centre). To the left of the netting of the birds, on three sub-registers, the men of the upper two make a noise in order to drive the birds into the triangular net, whilst the man seated in the lowest plucks the feathers off one of the previously caught birds (). The representation of the sailing to the "beautiful west", which stands directly over the dado area of this section of the north wall, could be the related to the similar images of sailing ships, which occupy the lower image field of the east side of this north wall, also placed over the dado area.
The lower east (right) register set is comprised of five registers, the top four of which are of roughly the same height, although the uppermost is actually of a smaller height. The lowest (fifth) register is approximately the height of two of the those above and like the lowest register to the left of the doorway contains a scene of sailing to the "beautiful west".
The top four registers contain some particularly original scenes, all taking place in the market place.
The top register shows scenes which the two deceased would have known well, with manicurists, pedicurists and barbers all pursuing their crafts, which are presumably not carried out in the house, but in the open market. In the left half of the scene, customers not only have their hair cut, but also their heads and chins are shaved and even hair is being removed from their legs. The right-hand side shows pedicure and manicure. One unusual occurrence is the man who sits cross-legged having a manicure. He is portrayed with his body facing forwards (full on to the observer), although his head faces the manicurist; while at his other side a scribe patiently awaits his turn.
The following three registers (registers two to four) all show tradesmen bartering their goods and all contain the conversations between those participating in the action. These scenes are fairly rare in Old Kingdom tombs.
Register two contains, at its centre, two scenes with traders of fish and sycamore fruits, but, at either end are two unusual scenes. On the left a market trader sells vegetables, but a baboon which held on a leash by a youth helps itself to some onions. The angry greengrocer turns to the baboon handler and says :
"Hey youth, you who plays at being an overseer, do you want me to get my boss?". At the far right end of the register is another person with a monkey (not a baboon, perhaps a meerkat), he is described as a security guard. These guards are often found with two monkeys (in the same way that police today use dogs), so perhaps the youth at the far end of the register is his assistant. The guard has set his monkey at a thief, shouting to the monkey :
"Seize him! Seize him!".
The next register, shows four scenes of barter of various kinds, including a copper ingot in exchange for finished copper goods. The accompanying text provides a comparison of values. The merchant with finished copper vessels states :
"Here is the equivalent of your ingot!".
In the last of the three registers note the following: The cup trader on the left is female and says to her customer :
"Behold, something from which you can drink.". The second customer from the left is heavily laden with goods (he even carries some goods on his head), whilst at far right a seated cloth merchant says to his two customers :
"Two cubits of cloth in exchange for 6 units" (possibly of copper).
The lowest (fifth) register shows two ships in full sail (, ), which correspond to the sailing ship in the lowermost register of the west section of the north wall, similar in construction and rigging. The ships of this section of wall have extra crew, a group of six at the rear. Again they sail towards the "beautiful west".
The image field of this wall contains six registers, each one being of a different height. Of the 4 metre high wall, the bottom metre is the undecorated dado. The topics of the registers are predominantly devoted to the funerary service by the funerary priests and the members of the family of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep, but the bottom register contains another journey by ship.
The top register ( and ) contains a large text field in twelve vertical columns. At right-hand side, the two tomb owners are actually shown seated side by side, although depicted with Niankhkhnum in front and Khnumhotep behind. They face the large text of a legal nature, which covers the contractual arrangements for the funerary foundation :
"The two supervisors of the manicurists of the palace, honoured by the great god, Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep; they say:
'Concerning these brothers and the funerary priests, who act for us, regarding our offerings in the necropolis : we do not permit them to have control over the children of our two wives nor any human being. They alone shall make the invocatory offerings for us as well as for our fathers and mothers and for those who will be in the necropolis.
Concerning any funerary priest who, for payment, hands over his his duties to any other person : everything that has been given to him shall be taken away from him and given to the other funerary priests in his phyle.
Concerning any funerary priest who contracts for other work : everything that has been given to him shall be taken away from him and given to the other funerary priests in his phyle.
Concerning any funerary priest who should litigates against his funerary priest colleague, by raising an accusation relating to his lack of support, in that he proposes taking the accused's dues from the offerings of the two deceased : his share shall be taken from him and given to this funerary priest, against whom he has litigated.
We have done this for your benefit, so that these offerings shall be good for the two men for whom they are intended, those who will be in the necropolis.' "
The middle four register (two to five) contain rows of various people, in each case a total of ten.
Registers two and three ( and ) both contain porters carrying various goods towards the right-hand side. Both registers contain ten porters, identified only by their clothing as funerary priests. Only two of the priests are identified, the small size of the hieroglyphs would indicate that was a later addition. The descriptive text for the two registers is placed at the beginning of the second of the two rows:
"Bringing of the exquisite".
Register four (, and ) shows an unusual parade of the relatives of the two deceased, organised (from right to left) as a couple (probably man and wife), two men, three women and finally three more men. All are portrayed on a larger scale than people in the other three registers of this group. The final two men, on the left holding hands, are definitely identified in the text as Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep. None of the others are specified by any form of family relationship. But, assuming the leading couple are the deceased's parents, then those between may be regarded as siblings. Their offspring would normally be portrayed at a smaller scale than themselves.
Register five (, and ) shows another parade of people, who might possibly belong to the households of Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep. With the exception of the woman, who is portrayed at the extreme right leading the group, only men are represented. All are accompanied by their names and titles, which range from
"judge and sub-overseer of the police" to
"scribe of the treasury". Only two of them hold the title of
"funerary priest". The woman, who holds the title
"king's administrator", is named Tjeset.
The sixth (bottom) register (, and ) is another journey by two ships. Journeys to the north in ships are usually shown powered by oarsmen, since they to travel against the wind which comes from north. This northward destination is usually shown in the east wall images. In difference to the remaining scenes of this wall, which progress from left to right in direction, the ships are represented in reverse and consequently organised directly northward.
The ships are of two different types, they also differ from the sailing ships of the westward journey. The first (left) ship is a equipped with a triple-divided cabin with the head of a hedgehog carved on its prow; the second (rear) ship is a vessel with a singly divided cabin and which imitates the form of a papyrus boat. In both cases one of the deceased stands in front of the cabin receiving a report from an official. There is no indication as to who is in which ship. The pilots at the bow of both ships hold their long pole (for checking the depth) out of the water, since the ship is apparently in safe waters.
The text over the first ship gives the purpose as :
"Journeying to the beautiful places in the midst of the blessed.". The pilot of the second ship shouts to his helmsmen
"Hold to starboard! Don't hit the other ship!".
This wall of the first chamber has at its east end the passageway () to the second chamber (storeroom). The passageway is about 2 metres in height but only about 0.6m wide. The wall is decorated with two sets of registers, the first runs along the top of the wall, above the height of the passage to the storeroom. The lintel of the passageway was originally decorated, but only traces now exist, showing a young cow and a young antelope both lying on the ground.
The upper register set () has at its two outer edges the standing figures of the deceased: Niankhkhnum on the right (west) and on the left Khnumhotep. They are accompanied by their respective eldest sons. Between them the area is divided into four registers of very unequal heights, representing various scenes of bird hunting and fishing.
To the right (left of ), the image of Niankhkhnum is separated from the central area by a vertical band of hieroglyphs :
"Considering the marshland, the swamp-thicket and the swamp-waters, catching fish and capturing birds. More beautiful than all things.". Above his head in seven columns is his name and his titles, which have been encountered previously. Before him, at a much smaller scale, stands his eldest son Hem-re.
Likewise, on the left, the image of Khnumhotep is separated from the central area by a vertical band of hieroglyphs, of almost identical text. Before Khnumhotep stands his eldest son Schepsesptah, again at a smaller scale; whilst above him is his name and his titles.
The first register () shows at its centre the capture of birds using a hexagonal net, from within an area bounded by papyrus on the left and by reeds on the right. The net is closed abruptly by four men at the command of an observer. At both ends of the register two supervisors present such captured birds to the respective deceased.
The second register () shows at its centre the rather unique scene of the mending of nets and the manufacture of new ones. The accompanying text definitely specifies them as being nets for the capture of birds, the men doing the work are bird catchers. Again, at both ends of the register, two supervisors present captured birds to the respective deceased.
Registers three and four (upper part of and views , , ) have a greater height that the previous pair, due to part of the display being designed to represent two different areas: the watery regions and the shore. These are scenes of the capture of fish, by various methods.
Register three () mainly shows the capture using a large drag-net handled by a great many fishermen on the shore, divided into two groups (each with a supervisor), at either end of the large net. The net holds a great many fish, from which 18 different species can be identified. At each end of the shore two supervisors present fish from the catch to the two deceased. At the two ends of the lower level (in the creak) fishermen catch fish with a fishing rod, each fisherman seated in a small boat.
The fourth register () has the area divided into a water region bounded by two shore-lines (views , , ). The fishermen on the upper shore use a variety of fishing techniques, using different sizes of nets and also fishing baskets. Again a great variety of fish can be seen. On the lower shore men are shown gutting and splitting the catch for drying. A large mound of fish can be seen on the upper shore, on the left, around which birds scavenge for a meal.
The lower register set () has at its left-hand side the figures of the two deceased standing side by side (lower half of ) : Niankhkhnum in front and Khnumhotep behind, again accompanied by their respective eldest sons. The area to the right is divided into four registers of fairly equal heights (the lowest being larger) and includes scenes of the making of date wine. A vertical text band separates the deceased pair from the set of registers and describes the scenes :
"Viewing the gifts which are brought up from all its villages, and the piling up of the sweet things at the pr-dSr.". [The
pr-dSr or "red-house" functioned as the state treasury, and the produce received was used to pay officials, craftsmen and retainers].
The first register shows the presentation of various fruits destined for the
pr-dSr. They are given the two deceased by three men at the left of the register dressed in the vestment of funerary priests. Behind the priests can be seen the fullness of the offerings, which are either piled up to great piles, or are in the the large vessels located at the right-hand side. All of the piles and vessels are named above with their content and include: grapes, raisins, juniper berries and figs.
The second register displays the production of wine from figs. Its sequence is difficult to follow because the start of the process is in the centre of the register, but at the left a scribe reads to the deceased from a papyrus scroll. At the centre, a man fills a basket from a pile of figs. These are then carried by another to two men measuring the required quantity into a wine press. The action then moves to the right of the mound of figs. Two supervised men, standing back to back fill wine vessels from a small jug. These are then sealed by the final person of the register.
The third register has several individual scenes, which display the bringing of wild game from the edge of the desert - antelopes and gazelles - to the two deceased. The representations differ from the more traditional views of wild game, as these (with the exception of the first - on the left) are almost exclusively small and not full-grown wild animals. They are presented in boxes, even on the back of a mule, and which are not apparently for offering purposes but are maybe presented to the two deceased for domestication. The two porters at the right side of the register carry the young animals in boxes from yolks, the last man also carrying an animal skin, possibly filled with milk. The antelope at the left-hand side could be there to supply milk to the young animals.
The fourth (bottom) register, like the two previous wall, contains a boating scene. However, this time only four small vessels are present, and instead of providing conveyance for a journey for the two deceased, they bring goods for them. Each boat is propelled by one oarsman at the rear and a
"goods manager" standing at the front holding aloft a sample of the goods in a bowl. The cargo is carried in a rectangular container in the middle of each boat. That last boat seems to be assisted on its journey by a man standing in the water.
This wall has, at its left-hand side, the entrance doorway (just over 2 metres in height and just less than 1m wide) for the passage to the open courtyard. The total display area of the wall (remembering that there is a metre high dado at its bottom) is subdivided into 10 registers and contains no large images of the two deceased. The top six registers extend across the whole width of the wall (), above the height of the doorway. The door is designed to open inwards into the chamber. The final four registers take up the remaoning width of the wall, to the right of the doorway (). The coloured ladder design and the geometric design above it has survived in a reasonable condition (see top of ).
The first two registers show the transportation of oil in six boats, whilst the register below them contains a list of the 39 oils, in individual vertical columns. The boats have a variety of designs for their bows and in some cases also for the stern. All the boats progress to the right (north).
The next three registers - three to five - () show images of the hunting of wild animals at the edge of the desert. The three registers are bounded on either side by a single fence, extending across all three. Within the three registers a total of 16 different types of animal are shown, ranging from antelopes and gazelles to small creatures like the hare and hedgehogs. The images of the hunt have retained a large part of their original colours. The image background, as always, is blue-grey, the desert floor is painted red-brown. The colour of the various plants ranges from light to dark green. The animals of the desert show different colourings.
In the register immediately over the doorway (bottom of ) is represented the harvesting of various fruits. This does not take place in the usual cultivated garden but in an open landscape. The left-hand half of the register contains the harvesting of fruits from three different types of tree. These are, from left to right: figs, juniper berries and
Snj-fruit (unknown). A young boy has climbed into the fig tree to pick the fruit. The right-hand side shows the harvesting of grapes from a large vine and starts the wine making process, which continues down the wall, to the right of the doorway.
The four registers - seven to ten - (), to the right of the doorway, show wine making and is essentially a continuation of the grape harvest in the register which extends over the doorway. The first shows the treading of the grapes by five men, who support themselves a long pole above their heads. The next shows the squeezing of the juice from the grapes, employing no less than eight men (three on the left, four on the right and one forcing the two poles apart). The last two registers, which are actually in the wrong order, show the filling and sealing of the wine jars; the uppermost has the jars being closed and sealed by three men, whilst the bottom register has the jars being filled by two men. A rack with five jars stands behind the man on the right, two types of jars are shown.
THE SECOND CHAMBER
Notwithstanding having roughly the same dimensions as the first chamber, this one is totally undecorated. Its purpose was possibly that of a storeroom, but no proof of this use was discovered. Its size is approximately 1.4m north-south and 3.3m east-west, with a height of just under 4 metres. The entrance from the previous chamber is located at the east end of the north wall, designed so that the door would open inwards.