To the right of the entrance to the hall, was a representation of Pharaoh Thutmose IV mirroring that already seen earlier (scene 5); but only a few fragments remain. Horemheb was present twice on the platform, once turned towards his sovereign, another time turned towards the scene of foreign tribute, which we will now discuss. His cane forms one of the lateral boundaries of four registers.
Administration and tribute of Asians and Nubians. Horemheb oversees donations and at his feet, in front of the platform, stands a troop of Egyptian soldiers with large shields; the scene is extended into the second register with the arrival of the Nubians.
Only one third of the first register is intact; we see three groups of four horses led on reins by grooms and we are again obliged to note that the Egyptian artists did not know how to represent this animal.
Horses are red, beige, white or spotted. They wear a more or less complex headdress, with high plumes, intended, as when the adornment of fat calves, to emphasize the power of Pharaoh and the domination of Egypt ().
Among the functions of Horemheb is that of Overseer of horses, so the royal stables are his responsibility and he also inspects the horses that his subordinates parade in front of him.
Only two small fragments of this register remain. It included the transport of bows and khepresh sword blades by the administrators of the civilian and military stores, subordinates of Horemheb, who presented to him the stored goods for an inspection.
Many Syrians bring goods typical of their country. At the front, two dignitaries bow down to the ground, followed by ten men, seven standing and three kneeling, who are drawn with bold outlines: a piece of true bravery by the artist! Most have a pointed blonde beard; they are dressed in a long loincloth, typically Syrian, white alternating sometimes with blue, and rolled up several times. They hold gold rings; decorated jugs and vases ().
Two Kush princes (called
"The wicked princes of Kush, from the vile country of Kush"), kneeling on the ground, salute Horemheb. They are followed by servants carrying panther skins and, after a space, by women and children. Women hold the young toddlers by the hand; even smaller ones are placed in a basket with a cowhide cover that the mother wears on her back and is suspended by a belt from her forehead ().
Beyond stereotypes and propaganda, we see that the Egyptians accurately portray the particular characteristics of Nubian women (even captives). Thus accurately showing the way they dress: their torso is bare, exposing often pendulous breasts, and they wear long skirts probably of leather. Their complexion is a brownish red, while their children can be simply black. They have short, frizzy hair. They frequently wear silver jewellery, a necklace and large earrings.
A famous scene showing Nubian dancers occupies the left half. They form two groups of three and five men, all thrown into a furious dance, punctuated by a drummer. The two closest to the King's platform are almost grotesque and have only a short loincloth as their clothing, while the loincloths of their companions are white. All have shaved heads except for three tufts of hair.
The rear of the procession is formed by a scene, only sketched out; showing cattle and the herdsmen accompanying them, with a well-rendered impression of movement ().
On the left, preceded by a trumpet player who announces his arrival, the head of the procession approaches the royal platform where the squad of Nubian soldiers – who constitute the Pharaoh's bodyguard - whom we have already spoken of, is waiting for them.
This wall is almost totally destroyed. The remaining fragments suggest the previous presence of a false door. It must have been quite small, because the upper area of the wall is occupied by two rather large scenes, symmetrical about the centre. In the centre of this scene, Anubis (left) and Osiris (right) are back to back. Before each of these gods Horemheb, hammered out, stands in adoration, devoting offerings.
The wall is almost completely ruined. There remains only a thin band and a corner decorated. We cannot even tell if the stele there was in stone or plaster.
In the centre of the west wall of the transverse hall the entrance to this room opens, a little off-centre, which, after a very short unfinished passage and without decoration, leads into the longitudinal room, also called long room or passage. In the case of Horemheb, this last term, regarded critically, is more justified: in the chosen tomb model, the front chamber (transverse hall) represents a mirror of life on earth, while the back room (with pillars) is a mirror of the beyond, and the passage serves as a means of communication between the two; it is often at this point that we find the funeral procession.
These occupy four registers over a length of 4m. The scenes are read from top to bottom and from right to left. The procession occupies the three higher registers, while the journey to Abydos is in the fourth register, where we will begin.
This occupies the fourth register, the lowest. A few columns of stereotyped text accompany the boats. Compared to Wilkinson's drawing, there are now large gaps in the register, but we can still surmise its symmetry by the middle of the scene: the journey to Abydos is on the right and the return journey on the left.
This scene is now mutilated and so we must trust Bouriant and Wilkinson. Three large boats (one behind the other) have their sails folded, furled and tied down. They follow the course of the Nile since they must go north and are propelled by rowers. On the front of them stands a rudimentary cabin. On the roof of the cabin is a mass vaguely shaped like a pear, vaguely reminiscent of a human form wrapped in a piece of cloth or a mat. The item looks like a Tekenu (we'll talk about Tekenu a little further on). But, on the other hand, the presence of the latter is never attested as part of the journey to Abydos and, usually, the Tekenu is wrapped in a skin of beast. At the stern, there are the large oar rudders. The three tugboats that pull the funerary ship are today destroyed.
On the right, a Sem-priest is waiting for them in Abydos. With the aid of a censer and a hes vase, he performs rites on an offering table. Behind him, squatting, are mourners. Some are only sketches with a red brush: an admirable design, often reproduced in art books.
More than a personal display of loss, extravagant mourning had the ritual function of attracting good spirits to guide the deceased on the paths of the Hereafter (P. Steiner, Lecture at the Twelfth International Congress of Egyptologists, Cairo, November 2019).
An Accompanying text says:
"Go peacefully to Abydos to follow Osiris-Ounnefer, the great Count is with you. To the West, to the West, the Land of the Righteous, the place you have been waiting impatiently for!" [incomprehensible part]
"Your parents say: 'be welcome and be well!' All embrace you, you who have kept the esteem of your king, you have not failed..
Osiris, first of Westerners, gives him a gentle breeze, allows him to stay in the land of the living (= the dead). For the Osiris, the royal scribe, the scribe of the recruits, Horemheb, true of voice'"
Near the naos was found:
"The Prince and Count, great confidant of the lord of the Two Lands, beloved of the perfect god (= the king). The royal scribe, who loves him, Horemheb, true of voice, and his wife Atuia, true of voice". The text is messy and sometimes incomprehensible. Lüdddenckens, who studied it, came to the conclusion that the TT 78 scribe, who did not write any text for the three upper registers, but wrote above the procession to Abydos, probably worked from an already faulty mode.
This is modelled on the previous one, but would be less finely realized. The three tugboats are tightly bunched together, sailing to Thebes, driven by the North wind.
The mysterious "package" we talked about is still on the roof of the cabin, surrounded by a white cloth and what looks like straps. At the front of the small towed skiff, one of the sailors spreads his arms horizontally to deploy a large piece of white cloth that he holds taut (). Egyptologists do not propose - to my knowledge - a of this representation.
The text accompanying the boat:
"Return of the peaceful one from Abydos, for the one who has been distinguished by Osiris, the royal scribe Horemheb, he says: 'I am back after having received my bread as an offering, after my body was united with the offerings, after breathing myrrh and incense'" while sailors exclaim, " To the oars, to the west bank at Thebes!".
The text in the naos says:
"For the Ka of the prince and Count, the eyes of the king in the whole country. The royal scribe, Horemheb, true of voice. Atuia, true of voice."
To the left of the tug boats, a priest waits for the deceased (or their statues) on the shore and makes libations in front of an offering table. He is a lector priest, recognizable by a broad band of cloth that crosses his chest to the shoulder. He carries a libation vase and a censer ().
This is particularly long in Horemheb's tomb, since it occupies three registers, and is rich with details: edible provisions, drinks, cosmetics, jewels, weapons, chairs ... as well as furniture, chests, coffins, magic figurines, cartons of mummy, amulets ... in short everything that can serve the deceased in his future afterlife. Madeleine Peters-Destéract, who has reviewed Bouriant's original records, says that one of the men was carrying a rooster, which is now missing. It's a shame, because these galinacae are
It is doubtful that all these objects have always been placed in the tomb of private individuals. In any case, Horemheb's tomb is too small to have contained all of them. It must therefore be agreed that the image on the walls was sufficient to produce the expected magical effect of substitution for the real items. The head of the procession is at the right hand end of the 3rd register and also at the end at the left end of the first register. We will follow the parade from bottom to top and from right to left, referring to the photos and drawing of Bouriant to avoid a tedious description.
• The first group of servants brings food, jugs ... a small calf led by a rope, has unfortunately disappeared.
• Then follow six men carrying on platters sanctuary-shaped chests of Lower Egypt (Gardiner O20
"per-nu", "per-neser") or naos (Gardiner O18).
• Then comes a low table having containers full of food and hung with a fan, then follow skins, a chair, a bed ().
• Finally, very precious goods, two chariots, one unhitched, the other hitched; two coloured quivers hang from the shaft of one of them. Once again their horses are awkwardly represented, stiff, and poorly proportioned. In the background, we see only sketched men carrying white coffers on their heads.
• The first persons carry vases of ointments, staves, white or red chests.
• After a large space, we find the Canopic chest surrounded by a white and red chequered fabric, which is placed on a stretcher that men carry ().
• Two men cary cartonnage mortuary masks on trays (the heads have almost disappeared in a gap, but we still see their dark blue beards).
• A man carries a large tray on which are placed ointment pots, arrows and a type of club with a blade. A large fan hangs underneath, hanging from the crook of the man's arm.
Then come clothes, represented as in their hieroglyph (Gardiner S118) showing a fabric and five warp threads, and finally two quivers.
• Two porters (there were probably more) bring large golden neck pieces and a long necklace of gold at the end of which was a scarab stamped in the name of Amenhotep III, which we can no longer see.
• In the final group are two ushebtis on trays and one final person who is very interesting because he carries, once more on a tray, a Ba-bird with a human head; a necklace terminated by an amulet of heart hangs from the crook of his arm ().
It is the best preserved, but it still lacks the end of the procession and in particular the catafalque whereupon the mummy rests, which Bouriant in his time reproduced.
• On the right are seven men forming a compact group (). All bear on one shoulder a yoke at the ends of which hang two white boxes. Vegetables rise up from them; on the side of the boxes, are fixed containers of water evoking libation vases. They are called
"Gardens of Osiris", so named by analogy with the moulds in earth in the form of Osiris in which one sows barley or wheat (
"Osiris vegetants"), symbols of resurrection.
Following on from this group, the representations of the funeral procession proper appear: mourners, transport of Tekenu, coffin on a sledge. The Canopic equipment (vases, chest ...), traditionally drawn before or after Tekenu, are moved here to the second register, and wedged between objects of funerary furniture.
First come a compact group of mourners, in their usual attitude (). Their skin is alternately light and dark, so that they are better distinguished. All of them, with their arms raised, are facing forward, with the exception of a woman who, facing towards the back, seems to pay homage to the catafalque of the deceased who arrives. A sketch, which probably represents seated mourners, is behind it (green arrow, ).
The mysterious Tekenu is depicted as a curled up form, surrounded by a gray animal's skin and resting on a sleigh dragged by four men (). Four other persons are partially obscured by Tekenu, but in fact they are behind him in the procession. The first carries two canes in his left hand folded against his chest.
The procession is led by a Sem-priest, who wears the traditional panther skin and holds a censer and a hes-vase to perform the proper rites. He is accompanied by two assistants, one of whom is holding a situla for the libations of milk (). Four cows pull the sledge, as well as seven lector priests (recognizable by the bands of fabric across their chests) who also hold a rope. Two persons facing backwards persons make gestures of sorrow ().
Nowadays, we see only a very small part of the enormous catafalque which protected the coffin, as well as the stern of the false barque on which it was posed; the boat itself rests on a large sledge.
The end of the procession is made up of important persons, colleagues or friends of the deceased. These men wear tunics folded over their loincloth and hold in hand their canes as indications of their power.